医学论文英文写作时用被动语态还是主动语态?
发布时间:2016-11-23
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大多数的学者从一开始学习论文英文写作时,就被教育说最好多使用被动语态。被动语态被大众认为更加客观,不掺杂主观人情,更加适合用于科研写作;被动语态强调"什么被发现",而不是"谁发现"。这种习惯往往又在论文投稿的过程中得到固化:论文中为数不多的主动语态句子被审稿人特意拎出来,建议改为被动语态。当这样的情况多次出现之后,曾经的投稿者成长为审稿人,又会在审稿的过程中再次建议新手,于是这"不成文"的规定口口相传,成了科技论文写作课程里的一条金科玉律。

那么,写作论文英文如SCI论文、中文论文中的英文摘要时,是否一定要使用被动语态呢?事实上,现在的高水平期刊都倡导更多的使用主动语态。此外,越来越多的英文论文写作指导手册也在倡导多使用主动语态。

例如,期刊Science建议: Use active voice when suitable, particularly when necessary for correct syntax (eg: "To address this possibility, we constructed a λZap library . . .," not "To address this possibility, a λZap library was constructed . . .")。而期刊Nature建议: Nature journals prefer authors to write in the active voice ("we performed the experiment...") as experience has shown that readers find concepts and results to be conveyed more clearly if written directly.
    很多时候选择使用主动语态有以下的优点:
1 强调作者的责任  有时候使用被动语态给刻意模糊一些动作而推卸责任提供了空间。例如:No attempt was made to measure the weight loss because they were deemed unimportant to the analysis. (被动语态)
We did not measure the weight loss of the samples because we deemed them unimportant to the analysis. (主动语态)
2 增加可读性  使用主动语态不仅展示了动作的发出者,还能让句子更简洁和更生动。例如:In vivo cardiac hypertrophy was induced by Angiotensin II (AngII) infusion by osmotic mini-pumps and AMPK was activated by metformin in drinking water. Protein expression, AMPK phosphorylation and OGlcNAc levels were evaluated by QPCR and western blot. (被动语态)
> Angiotensin II (AngII) infusion induced in vivo cardiac hypertrophy and metformin in drinking water activated osmotic mini-pumps. We used QPCR and western blot to evaluate protein expression, AMPK phosphorylation and O- GlcNAc levels. (主动语态)
3 减少语意的含糊  主动语态可以让读者很清楚的看到一些关键动作的发出者。例如:

The failure of the samples is suggested by the thermal and mechanical studies. (被动语态)
The thermal and mechanical studies suggested that the residual stresses have failed the samples. (主动语态)
    终上所述,在进行论文英文写作时主、被动语态的选择可遵循以下原则:(1)仔细阅读目标期刊的Guidelines和最近发表的文章,根据期刊的要求选择语态,如果期刊明确说明必须用某一种语态,那么一定要遵守期刊的规则要求写作。2如果是论文写作的初学者,希望更加专注于自己的研究本身,建议可以全文尽量使用被动语态。因为这样在审稿过程中更加的安全,某一篇文章因为过度使用被动语态而且期刊的审稿人提出语态有问题是比较少见的。3如果科技论文写作已经相对比较自如了,那么建议全文尽量使用主动语态,因为会使得文章更加简洁生动,除非出现动作的发出者不详,或者与本文研究关联不大句子希望更加强调动作而不是动作的发出者动作的接受者是句子的主要话题这几种情况。



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