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摘要:以建立黄土丘陵区地膜覆盖栽培的最佳模式，高效利用降雨资源为目的，于2011—2013年在庄浪县旱地进行了不同降雨年份地膜覆盖盖度、垄型、覆膜时期、垄高4因素马铃薯产量、经济效益和水分利用效率试验。结果表明：覆 盖度、垄型、覆膜时期是全膜覆盖的关键因素，起垄高度在干旱年对产量影响明显。对产量和水分利用效率的影响次序为覆盖度>垄型>覆膜时期>起垄高度。覆盖度显著影响产量、效益和水分利用效率，全覆盖优于半覆盖，半覆盖优于露地栽培。全覆盖较露地增产鲜薯21.2%，大中薯重提高23.63%，水分利用效率增加26.19%，半覆盖较露地增产鲜薯16.1%，大中薯重增加10.91%，水分利用效率增加16.62%。垄型对马铃薯产量影响明显，“凹”型双垄优于“弓”型单垄，其垄内0～60 cm的土壤储水量比“弓”型垄提高3.46%，其中20～40 cm增加10.58 mm，提高4.48%，增产16.9%，大中薯增加26.47%，水分利用效率增加18.20%。“秋覆膜”、“顶凌覆膜”、“播前覆膜”3个覆盖时期，以秋覆膜最佳，比播前覆膜产量增加15.31%，水分利用率提高14.56%，顶凌覆膜次之，较播前覆膜增产9.54%，水分利用率提高8.98%。“低垄”、“中垄”、“高垄”3个起垄高度，在不同降雨年份表现不同，降雨偏多的年份高垄栽培利于增产，降雨较少的年份低垄栽培为佳，各年度平均显示，低垄型和中垄型分别比高垄型增产1.72%和1.79%，水分利用效率提高3.61%和2.76%。在黄土高原旱作区马铃薯地膜全覆盖栽培以中垄型双垄垄播秋覆全膜栽培为最佳模式，较露地栽培增产49.16%，纯收益增加78.06%，水分利用效率提高56.79%，较全膜垄作侧播增产23.07%，纯收益增加43.93%，水分利用效率提高24.25%，实现了降雨资源的高效利用。
AbstractIn order to establish the best mode for plastic-film mulching and improve the rainfall use efficiency of potato production in loess hilly region, the effects of mulching degree, mulching time, ridge type, and ridge height on yield, economic benefit, and water use efficiency were investigated under different annual rainfall conditions in 2011—2013. The results showed that mulching degree, mulching time, and ridge type were the key factors for potato production, and ridge height significantly influenced on yield in dry year, with the order of mulching degree ＞ ridge type ＞ mulching time ＞ ridge height. Mulching degree significantly influenced on yield, economic benefit and water use efficiency with the following order: whole plastic-film mulching ＞ half plastic-film mulching ＞ no mulching. Compared with no mulching, the yield, weight of large and medium tuber, and water use efficiency of whole plastic-film mulching were increased by 21.2%, 23.63%, and 26.19%, and that of half plastic-film mulching by 16.1%, 10.91%, and 16.62%, respectively. Ridge type also had significant influence on yield. Autumn mulching showed the largest effect among three mulching time. Compared with mulching before sowing, yield and water use efficiency of autumn were increased by 15.31% and 14.56%, respectively. The effect of ridge height on potato production depended on annual rainfall. High ridge showed favorable effect in rainy years, whereas the opposite was true in the drought year. Under the average annual rainfall from 2011 to 2013, yield and water use efficiency of low and medium ridge were increased by 1.72%, 1.79%, 3.61%, and 2.76%, as compared with the high ridge. The yield, economic benefit, and water use efficiency of double and medium ridges and ridge planting with whole plastic-film mulching were 49.16%, 78.06%, and 56.79% higher than that of no mulching, and 23.07%, 43.93%, and 24.25% higher than that of ridge side planting with whole plastic-film mulching. These method is suggested be used for potato production in loess hilly region.
文章编号： 0258_7106 (2016) 01_0018_15 中图分类号： P618.41 文献标志码：A
**通讯作者耿新霞， 女， 1979年生， 助理研究员， 成矿规律研究方向。 Email： gen firstname.lastname@example.org
ZHANG Li-gong, MA Shu-zhen.Research on the key technologies of whole plastic-film mulching of potato in loess hilly region[J].杂志名称,2014,21(5):84-92